There are some personal finance rules of thumb that are set in stone across the board, no matter who you are, how much money you have or what your financial goals are. For example, whether you make $1,000 per month or are worth $10 million, you should have an emergency fund that equals a minimum of three months expenses.
But then there are also rules and suggestions that change as you age and (hopefully) earn more money. Depending on your situation, here are a few age-based tips to maximize your financial well-being.
At this age you’re probably still single, no kids, making pretty decent money, traveling a bit, pretty career-focused and not thinking too much about retirement. What essential steps should you be taking?
- Get debt-free and stay that way. Pay off your credit cards, student loans and car loan to get your credit score in tip-top shape for when you will inevitably want to qualify for the best mortgage rates.
- Take advantage of your employer’s 401k benefit. If you’re offered a match, put at LEAST the amount in there to maximize the match. Aim to defer at least 6% of your salary, 10% if you can afford it.
- Get your emergency fund in place ASAP. Start with only $25 per paycheck if you have to, but make it automatic, and once the money is in there it stays. You’ll be glad you have it if you lose your job or have an accident.
If you’re a typical American, by this time you own a home, have 2.3 kids and are settled into a career that provides a solid income. You probably spend a lot of time at your kids’ events and have a couple of nice cars in the garage. Make sure you’re staying financial healthy by also doing the following:
- Keep socking that money into your 401k. Do NOT sacrifice retirement savings to pay for your kids’ education. They don’t give retirement scholarships or loans.
- But you should be saving for college if you can. Decide how much you do want to help (some people want their kids to pay for some to make sure they value the opportunity) then open a 529 account for each child with monthly automatic contributions. Also, make sure you’re matching any expensive extracurricular activity costs with college savings. If you can’t afford to save for college AND pay for select soccer or elite gymnastics, reconsider the high-end program. Chances are your child won’t be making a career out of it and while it might be a tough pill to swallow to drop down to a more affordable league, it will be a lesson in sacrifices and choices that won’t be forgotten.
- Make sure your emergency fund balance has been adjusted to cover increases in your expenses over time. Once you’ve reached the goal, keep up with the automatic monthly savings into a Roth IRA or money market savings account.
You survived toddlers and are now enjoying the final teen years with your kids, who are hopefully college-bound overachievers. You may be considering a second act career or wondering what the heck you’re going to do with your time once the last of your brood flies the nest. What else should you be thinking about?
- It’s probably time to really think about what retirement means to you, then putting that story into numbers. Most people these days aren’t really planning to live out their days on a golf course, but would like the flexibility to hit the links when they like while also staying engaged and active. Think about how the cost of your lifestyle will change and make sure you can weather that.
- Take a look at how your 401k (you’re still contributing, right?) is allocated. At this point you should only have about 50% of your funds in stocks, so make any updates to put the other 50% in solid bond funds or other fixed income instruments.
- Try to get your house paid off sooner rather than later. Your goal should be to retire completely debt-free.
As with all personal finance tips, these are simply general ideas based on what the “average” American deals with through life. Of course your situation is going to be different and you’ll make adjustments as needed according to what’s important to you. Above all, remember that the purpose of all of this is to simply allow you to enjoy life without having money as a barrier to pursuing your calling.